Developing Learner Autonomy: A Homework Choice Board

Apart from traditional homework tasks based on lessons delivered in the classroom, there is still a myriad of activities students can do by themselves to practise their English, learn to work independently, and take responsibility for their own learning. Learner autonomy is in fact one of the most important things we can promote if we really want to get our students ready for the ongoing, life-long language learning endeavour.

The following homework choice board, intended for students at B1 level and above, suggests 16 tasks to practise all four skills as well as grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation:

  • Students can choose the tasks based on their personal interests, or areas they feel they need more work on, which should result in extra motivation.
  • In the process of choosing an activity, students will be taking into account the skills and language items that are being practised in class, but also what is relevant to them, especially when they can connect the task with their own life.
  • The activities in the board are also flexible as far as proficiency level is concerned, which means that students can work at their own performance level.
  • A few tasks have been designed so that they can be used later in class, resulting in excellent materials based on students’ interests which can be introduced in different lessons later in the year.

HomeworkChoiceBoard

HomeworkChoiceBoard.pdf

Although the tasks here have been selected so they are easy to keep track of, holding students accountable for their work, this should ideally be another step in helping students develop their learner independence skills. How would you use this board in your own student tracking system? How would you assess each of these tasks?

Advertisements

Inside the Mind of a Successful Language Learner: 5 Tips

A few months ago I travelled to Finland with a group of students as part of an exchange programme my school organises every other year. English is usually the language of communication among students in this type of programme. They may practise some Spanish when they visit us, and proficiency levels will vary, but at the end of the day the language most of them feel most comfortable with for communicative purposes is English. This time, however, my students soon drew my attention to one of the Finnish students who spoke mainly in Spanish, impressed both by his language skills and the speed with which he had reached that proficiency level: barely over a year and his Spanish already at a B1+/B2 level.

Admittedly, Joona Andersson is an 18-year-old secondary school student with a special gift for learning in general, and languages in particular, but after speaking to him and some of his teachers I couldn’t but wonder if there was something we could learn from his otherwise exceptional experience — and ability — that could still be applicable to other language learners. While it’s true that the learning process for him has been extraordinarily fast and efficient for a number of reasons, are there any specific motivations, activities or experiences that could be used by other students and which could help them boost their language learning skills?

1. Motivation

Joona not only agreed to be interviewed but was enthusiastic about the idea of being able to reflect on his own learning. And being a conscious learner comes, to a large extent, as a result of one’s motivation to learn:

LLLM-800x6801

“If someone asked me for advice on learning languages, I’d tell them to find something that motivates them to learn, something that gives them a reason to study the language. If you are not motivated to learn, it will be a lot more difficult to make yourself study often enough. You’ll also be less likely to really learn and understand anything if you don’t think it’s important in any way. If you are motivated, however, getting yourself to study won’t be a problem and you may even enjoy the process.”

He added:

“My schooling provided me with books I could use to learn more but I studied a lot more than was necessary. I believe that the work I did at home made all the difference since there are people my age who have studied the same amount of courses and passed them with great grades but still aren’t able to speak the language very well.”

This has worked for him with English and Spanish, and although he has studied Swedish as well, it “never really interested me.”

2. Immersion

So how did Joona use that extra motivation?

“I realized that immersion was the key to learning a language quickly […] I noticed that

coffee_computer_cup_desk_drink_laptop_notebook_pen-924271.jpg!d

with the help of the internet it was possible and very easy. So I started watching videos and reading texts about different topics in Spanish. Watching videos was hard at first and I only recognized basic words and expressions, but after a while I got used to it and started to understand more and more. This combined with all the vocabulary from the texts I was reading and the grammar I learned from various books and websites helped me get fluent in Spanish faster than I would’ve believed. Every time I would come across an unfamiliar word or expression I would translate it and then memorize it.”

Hobbies and personal interests also seem to play a major role:

“Music is also a big part of my everyday life. I spend at least two hours a day listening to music, usually at the gym while I work out. I think that has also helped me to learn languages, especially Spanish because I love Latin music and that’s almost everything I listen to nowadays.”

3. Seeking opportunities to interact with speakers of the language

In today’s high-tech world, it shouldn’t be that difficult to build connections and keep up relationships no matter the distance, provided you are offered the right opportunities. But this, again, requires a high degree of personal commitment. Joona says one of the things that has helped him with the foreign languages he speaks has a lot to do with “the foreign exchange students who I became very good friends with. I talk to them daily, and most of them never learned Finnish, which means I get a lot of practice in other languages.” An immediate implication is the need for schools and teachers to foster this type of relationships through exchange or e-pal projects, for instance.

4. Pronunciation

phonemic-chart-900x480

Interestingly, for Joona pronunciation is key in learning a language: “Pronunciation not only makes you sound better when you use the language but also helps with listening comprehension. If you only think about words as they are written and don’t know how to pronounce them, it’s likely that you won’t recognize the words when used by native speakers.”

Even in English, a language he feels very comfortable with, “there are times when I mess up the pronunciation of a word or speak incorrectly. I know that it’s not a big deal and you shouldn’t worry about those things too much but it is something that really bothers me personally. So I need more practice with pronunciation.

5. Thinking out loud and assessing your needs

“There’s one more thing I do that has definitely helped me to get faster at responding in other languages and improved my pronunciation. I like to think out loud and I do this (or at least try to) in the language I’m trying to learn. I can’t recommend this enough. It’s a really useful way to know what you can say in your target language and what you need more practice with. Let’s say you’re going to cook something, for example, and you’re thinking about what you need to buy and what you need to do in order to prepare something to eat. Why not think about those things in the language you’re studying? If you can’t do it, you know what you need to work on.”

“On The Same Page”: A Video-Based Lesson

In “On The Same Page” (Alli Norman and Carla Lutz, 2015), an introverted journalist for the local news section “has nothing to write about until he is whirled away into a colourful journey with his neighbour from the comic section.” Similarly, the students in this video-based lesson are asked to become active learners and have lots to say by making predictions at various stages in the story, raising questions about what they have have just watched, or sharing their personal reactions in the hope of enhancing their critical thinking skills while practising the language. The goal here is to set up a dialogue that is student-driven and through which the students will both demonstrate comprehension and engage in meaningful conversations with the visual text. What is more, this provides a flexible framework which allows for each student to work at their own performance level.

For each part of the film that they watch, the students are asked to complete one of three main tasks according to the symbol in each box:

  • Write a question. These can be based on facts, but they can also promote deeper thinking such as asking other students to analyse the plot or the characters, or express their own opinion. Questions charts like this one can help in making sure students come up with different kinds of questions.
  • Write a personal response or reaction. By making connections between what has happened in the film and the students’ own experiences, or other similar experiences, the students will reflect on the actions and express what they mean to them personally.
  • Write a prediction. This helps the students to keep focused on the story and to refine, revise and verify its plot and the key elements as they watch.

Such an approach demands that a variety of sharing strategies be used throughout the activity. While this is largely conditioned by class size, strategies should involve pairs of students (see Think-Pair-Share), groups (see Numbered Heads Together, Rountable, Roundrobin), and the whole class.

OTSPFI

OntheSamePage-Worksheet.pdf

1. Elicit the typical sections of a newspaper. Tell the students the story in the short film takes place at a newspaper and that one of the main characters is a journalist who works for the local news section.

2. 00:00-1:02 – LOCAL NEWS & COMICS. The students write a question about the main male character (e.g. Where does he work?, Why does he have nothing to write about?), a personal reaction to the main female character (How is the comics section different?, What is the girl like?, Why does she throw a ball at his window?), and a prediction of what they think will happen next. The students share each of these with their partners.

3. 1:02-1:20 – WEATHER. Question (e.g. What will the weather be like on Thursday?, What will the weather be like this week?)

4. 1:20-1:31 – ENTERTAINMENT. Personal response, perhaps based on the film titles, or a connection with the weather in the previous section or the plot so far.

5. 1:31-2:00 – FINANCE. Question.

6. 2:00-2:07 – SPORTS. Prediction.

7. 2:07-2:28 – OBITUARIES. Personal reaction.

8. The students are asked to think of two possible endings.

9. 2:28-END – Hold a whole-class discussion by using the final questions, personal responses and predictions as prompts.

 

Can the students now explain the meaning of “to be on the same page” and the reason why the filmmakers chose it for this story?

Puzzling it out: “Everybody’s Changing”

Everybody’s Changing is a song about something I think a lot of people will experience, which is when people’s lives start going different ways and you’re sitting there, thinking my friends are doing this, what am I doing? What do I do with my life? I think things like that are quite common to people and are probably more important than a lot of things that people write songs about.” (2004)

Change and finiteness are two of the main themes in “Everybody’s Changing” (Keane, 2003), topics which students should be able to relate to in different ways and around which a good reflective speaking lesson can revolve. Conversation questions such as these or these are good examples, although they may need to be adapted to the age group you’re teaching.

But why not introduce the topic by doing some language work using this song first? Here the lyrics have been broken down into 5 different grids corresponding to different parts of the song. Students write down the lyrics by using the letters on top in the columns directly below. There are a series of guidelines for them to follow:

  • Black squares represent spaces between words.
  • Each letter can only be used once, so students should be crossing out the letters as they use them.
  • Students should start by looking for the shorter words first, which typically belong to function words such as prepositions, articles, conjunctions or pronouns. This will then allow them to identify word categories and help them to think of the type of word they should be coming up with.
  • Other clues such as isolated letters, apostrophes, the position in the sentence and other context clues will help students solve the puzzle as the number of available letters falls.

Everybody'sChanging1Everybody'sChanging2

Everybody’sChanging-Worksheet.pdf

The activity can be adjusted to different levels by pre-teaching a few words we may think the students will find difficult, or by adding or deleting letters in each one of the grids. As with any other similar activities, it is also important that we model the procedure before having the students work independently or in their teams. By working out the first lines together and explaining the type of thinking behind each decision to be taken, the students will soon understand the type of language skills they should be practising and will accomplish the task more efficiently. Play the song at the end so that they can check their answers!

 

 

 

 

Everybody’sChanging-KEY

 

Dominoes

Call it unimaginative or uncreative, but dominoes is one of those activities that always seem to work in the language classroom no matter the level or specific group of students. From simple vocabulary matching to more advanced grammatical collocations and sentence structure, dominoes is, in essence, a collaborative game in which students work together to solve a puzzle providing each other with valuable feedback along the way, and in which students are allowed to demonstrate uncertainty and check their knowledge of the particular language area being practised. Take, for instance, this set of dominoes to practise negative prefixes attached to adjectives that I’ve been using for years:

NegativePrefixes3NegativePrefixes2NegativePrefixes1

Negative prefixes.pdf

 

Apart from the activity itself and all the skills involved, what I really like about the game is that, once it’s over, it is often possible for students to identify patterns and write rules that may have gone previously unnoticed.

This other set of dominoes is more discovery-driven and based on rhyming words. Students pay attention to the last sound(s) and match them accordingly during the game: the final vocalic sound or, if the word ends in a consonant, the final vocalic sound + consonant. During the game, the students can ask each other in case of doubt or have the teacher model the pronunciation of individual words. And when they’ve finished, they will have hopefully noticed different spellings for the same sound and will now also be able to write down several pairs of common homophones, as in the following:

afford – reward – bored – board – ignored
sail – sale – inhale – female
delete – compete- wheat – receipt – meet – meat – indiscreet – seat
disguise – rise – prize – cries
appeal – steal – steel – wheel
flour – flower – hour – tower
mist – missed – insist
amaze – nowadays – raise
write – right – tonight – knight
lay – café – sleigh
pear – nowhere – square – hair – hare – nightmare
so – sow – sew – cargo
great – grateweight – wait
later – favour – sailor – laser
niece – police – peace – piece
why – goodbye – lie – simplify

RhymingWords1RhymingWords2RhyimingWords3RhymingWords4

RhymingWords.pdf

 

Do you use dominoes in your teaching?

 

Image: Ishan Manjrekar,  Creative Commons

 

Anagrams and meaning: “The Longest Time”

Anagrams are words formed by rearranging the letters of a different word, as in “elbow”-“below”, “act”-“cat”, “save”-“vase”, or “stressed-dessert”. In this activity (B1/B1+) based on Billy Joel’s “The Longest Time” (1983), the students read the lyrics and try to find the forty-five anagrams that have been included. The students write their answers on the right-hand column, which also indicates the number of anagrams they are expected to find in each line.TheLongestTime

The Longest Time.pdf


SOLUTION:

1 said  2 me  3 tonight  4 still   5 left  6 write  7 what  8 could   9 time  10 once  11 was  12 now   13 goes  14 where  15 arms  16 there  17 miracle  18 how   19 need  20 how 21 me   22 maybe  23 last  24 feel   25 right  26 could   27 wrong  28 maybe  29 this  30 for   31 much  32 when   33 take   34 start  35 said   36 on   37 heart  38 now   39 are 40 wonderful   41 and   42 care  43 things  44 bad  45 intend


The students will be using their knowledge about grammar and vocabulary to rearrange the letters of the words whenever communication is interrupted as they read. Word categories and collocations will prove useful in some cases, spelling will be decisive in a few others, yet a good number of anagrams will be solved by focusing on meaning and thinking of words with similar letters (and which belong to the right category and with the right spelling) that might be the most appropriate for that context.

The activity is checked by having the students listen to the song at the end. Did they solve most of the anagrams? How did they solve them? Which anagram did they find the easiest? And the most difficult? Why? After checking the meaning of some of the anagrams in the song, can they now write a sentence using some of them?

 

Holding students accountable

When working in teams, holding students accountable for their contributions and their own learning is especially crucial. In fact, lack of student accountability is most of the times the reason why some group activities just don’t work, sometimes with some students ending up doing most of the work or talking, others having very few opportunities to say anything or simply have the time to think, and occasionally a few students that may decide to coast on the efforts of others.

Making sure every team member participates equally, no matter their proficiency level or, say, prior knowledge on a given topic, is the first step to make students responsible for their own learning. Cooperative structures such as Think-Pair-Share or Numbered Heads Together are step-by-step interactional strategies that effectively introduce think time with an element of randomness: no one knows who is going to be called on, so everyone working in pairs or in a team needs to make sure they all know what is going on (which may involve giving a specific answer to a question or a series of exercises, explaining what their views are regarding a topic, or sharing ideas based on the background knowledge each student in a team has about a topic.) By providing think time, all the students are given an opportunity to contribute at their own pace and in an equal manner, but it is this positive peer pressure that is established, where students learn to respect, wait, negotiate, listen and share, that will help us hold each and every one of our students accountable and encourage on-task collaborative behaviours.

The first activity in Unit 2 from “Gateway C1” (MacMillan) asks the students to guess the meaning of a series of highlighted words related to trends and fashion, and then decide what their opinion about each statement is. If I’d asked the class, I know there would have been a small group of students doing most of the talking in an orderly fashion, others still following the discussion but not really willing to participate for various reasons, and perhaps a few others completely off-task — a scenario we don’t like to think about. This is how the students worked on that activity instead:

  • Each team was given a sentence to be discussed.
  • Each team member wrote their personal opinion independently on a post-it note.
  • An appointed secretary in each team collected the post-its, read them, and then led a short team discussion.
  • The team wrote a short summary of the opinions to be shared later with the rest of the class.
  • Teams handed in their papers at the end of the activity.

IMG_20171106_193324

When the time was up, everyone in the room had thought about their sentence, had shared and listened to their classmates’ opinions, and were ready to explain them to the rest of the students in the room after working on a summary.

Structuring tasks in this way can be time-consuming at the beginning, but as the year goes by, and as the students understand what is expected from them, the steps can be simplified. And it really pays off. With larger projects, each team member can be assigned a role (time keeper, materials manager, leader, and so on) or students can be asked to complete a log or a reflection form at the end of the project that shows how the group and each team member worked by analysing the quality of their contributions. All of these can also help to keep our students accountable for what they do. Even more interestingly, this positive peer pressure built within team work will very soon affect not only the rest of the group but the overall classroom management and an atmosphere that is conducive to learning.

 


YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE: 

Cooperative Learning and the Language Classroom

5162224869_989d999fe7_b

Avoid Randomness: Three Other Ways of Grouping Students

9721586516_2b8c77ed4f_o

Three Content-Based Teaching Strategies

Content-based strategies